Cracking the MJO Nut: Example of 40 Day Observations for the RMM Index
(a) An example of an RMM index forecast. Recent observations of the index are shown in red with annotated numbers representing the date (29 November 2012 to 7 January 2013). Forecasts for the next 15 days (ensemble mean, green line; ensemble members, yellow lines) are appended from the last observation date. A measure of forecast confidence is provided by displaying areas in which 50% (dark gray) and 90% (light gray) of ensemble members, respectively, reside. Counterclockwise movement of daily points in the phase space is indicative of eastward propagation and the strength of the MJO is proportional to the distance from the origin. (b) Bivariate correlation between the observed and forecast RMM indices using the method by Lin et al.  for all daily forecasts from 1 September 2011.
RGB Color Composite Captures Character of Copernicus Crater’s Impact Melt-related Feature
(a) RGB color composite based on spectral parameters prominently captures the sinuous impact melt feature as distinct unit (marked with solid and broken lines). Here, R = albedo at 1489 nm, G = IBD 2000 nm, and B = BD 1900. Green arrow points to the location of newly identified Mg-Spinel lithology. (b) Various perspectives of the study area. Here, M3 data is draped over LOLA topography. (c) The M3 1489 nm albedo image provides context, but does not explicitly show the sinuous impact melt feature. (d) The IBD1000 parameter highlights the central peaks and fresh craters on the floor. (e) and (f) BD1900 and IBD2000 parameter images show the sinuous feature.
Regional Climate Impacts of a Biofuels Policy Projection
Default land use categories in WRFv3.1.1 and spatial distribution of new land use categories for switchgrass simulation. New land use categories that have switchgrass fraction ≥0.3 are labled Switchgrass/Grassland and Switchgrass/Cropland categories; whereas, Grassland/Switchgrass and Cropland/Switchgrass categories have switchgrass fraction ≤0.3. The box indicates the region over which spatial averages are computed for analysis of water balance components.
Mean Mass and Elevation Changes Derived from ICESat Points
Mean mass changes for the 10 sectors and elevation changes for the GIC derived from ICESat points. The color of the GIC in the insets a−f represents the mean elevation change according to the legend for dh/dt ICESat.
Radiosondes Over the Ice-free Arctic Ocean in 2010
(a) Sea-ice concentration (%) derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on 25 September 2010 with the track of the R/V Mirai (gray line) and radiosonde stations (red dots). Sea-level pressure analysis CTL is shown as contours (hPa). (b) NOAA/AVHRR infrared image at 2341 UTC, 24 September 2010, with temperature difference between analysis CTL and OSE at 300 hPa shown as red isotherms (°C).
Microstructure Formed After Experiments for Velocity-weakening and Strengthening Samples
The microstructure formed after experiments for velocity-weakening (a and b) and velocity-strengthening (c and d) samples. Double red arrows indicate the localized shear zone. Scale bar: 0.1 mm. (a and c) Plane-polarized light. (b and d) Cross-polarized light. Schematic sketch of the specimen assembly for friction experiments on gouge is shown in upper part. The half arrows indicate the shear direction along a gouge during an experiment.
J. Deshayes, A.-M. Tréguier, B. Barnier, A. Lecointre, J. Le Sommer, J.-M. Molines, T. Penduff, R. Bourdallé-Badie taffilmark, Y. Drillet, G. Garric, R. Benshila, G. Madec, A. Biastoch, C. Böning, M. Scheinert, A. C. Coward and J. J.-M. Hirschi
Accepted manuscript online: 6 MAY 2013 10:11AM EST | DOI: 10.1002/grl.50534